Three-Year Arts Education Exchange Continues

This year the Center, in conjunction with Harvard’s Project Zero, continued its commitment to an ongoing arts education exchange with China. The current three-year project is supported by a $240,000 grant to the Center from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF). During the past program year, the United States and China exchanged high-level delegations to survey philosophies and methods of training in the arts, and then to design the exchange of teams that will conduct research through the spring of 1987. 

Children doing brush-stroke painting, Liuzhou, China
Children doing brush-stroke painting, Liuzhou, China

In China, the arts education program was conceived as a cooperative project of the Ministry of Culture (MOC) and the Ministry of Education (MOE). Through the historic collaboration between the two ministries, the exchange provides an opportunity to study both pre-professional training in the arts and the teaching of the arts within the general education curriculum. 

In the United States, the research is being conducted by Project Zero, under the guidance of its co-director, Dr. Howard Gardner. Project Zero is a research unit at the Harvard Graduate School of Education that is devoted to the study of creativity and artistic thinking. In 1967, when the group began its work, founder-philosopher Nelson Goodman noted that next to nothing was known about creativity—hence the name “Project Zero.”

An additional quarter-of-a-million dollar grant from the RBF supports the Project Zero research. Dr. Gardner, renowned psychologist and author of Artful Scribbles: The Significance of Children’s Drawings and Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, along with his colleague, Dr. Ellen Winner, author of Invented Worlds: The Psychology of the Arts, will travel to China as one of three research teams. Gardner and Winner will concentrate their research on the arts training of children from ages four to ten in three cities: Beijing, Nanjing, and Xiamen. They also plan side trips to Guangzhou during their three-month stay in the spring of 1987.

In the fall of 1984, a delegation representing the Chinese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Education traveled to New York, Boston, Washington, D.C., Memphis, New Orleans, the “twin cities” of Minneapolis and St. Paul, and San Francisco.

Professor Wu Zuqiang, President of the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing; Wang Baihua, then Deputy Director, Bureau of Education, Ministry of Culture; Ji Junshi, Deputy Director of the Department of Primary Education, Ministry of Education;* and Lü Zhengwu, Deputy Division Chief of the Foreign Affairs Department, Bureau of Education, Ministry of Culture, visited primary, middle, and high schools; colleges; arts centers; and arts programs conducted within museums and other institutions. 

Meeting with students, teachers, and administrators, the four delegates interacted with American professionals directly involved in arts education. With the help of Ken Hao’s interpreting, the Chinese specialists asked, and in turn answered, many questions about curriculum, resources, teacher training, financing, student choice, and academic standards. 

In March of 1985 the United States sent a reciprocal delegation to China, led by Center director Professor Chou Wen-chung. Dr. Gardner represented Project Zero, and Lonna B. Jones, director of Awards in Arts Education for the RBF, represented the Fund. The fourth member of the delegation was Michelle Vosper, former program coordinator at the Center and now an arts consultant based in Hong Kong. 

The current arts education exchange project builds on Center exchanges conducted in 1980 and 1982, also supported by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. Throughout the six year history of these arts education exchanges, the Fund’s high degree of commitment has been evident from the personal participation of David Rockefeller, Jr., executive committee chairman of the RBF; Russell A. Phillips, Jr., executive vice president of the Fund, and Lonna B. Jones. 

The U.S. delegation traveled to seven Chinese cities—Guangzhou, Xiamen, Guilin, Liuzhou, Chengdu, Xi’an, and Beijing. In the course of their tightly scheduled three-week trip, the delegation observed the teaching of music and the visual arts, including both traditional and innovative techniques and both indigenous and imported forms. Among the highlights of the trip were encounters with exceptionally talented calligraphy and painting students—ages nine to eleven—in Liuzhou and with four- and five-year old music students in Xiamen who exhibited a sense of professionalism and delight in their own musical abilities. 

*The State Education Commission, established in June 1985, has superceded the Ministry of Education. Its chairman, Li Peng, holds the position of Vice Premier in the P.R.C.’s recent governmental reorganization. The current project will be continued under the combined auspices of the Ministry of Culture and the State Education Commission. 

During meetings in Beijing at the completion of the trip, the delegation was joined by Minister Lin Mohan. Former Vice Minister of Culture in charge of arts education, Lin had led the initial music and arts education delegation to the United States in 1980, at the invitation of the Center. The source of inspiration and initiative for the project in China, Lin’s participation in March showed his continued personal commitment, his official retirement from the ministry in 1982 notwithstanding. Lin will continue to create innovative exchanges through the new China Association for the Advancement of International Friendship, of which he is the chairman. 

The Vice Minister of Culture in charge of the arts, Zhou Weizhi, and Mme. Peng Peiyun, Vice Minister of Education and concurrently one of the vice chairmen of the newly constituted State Education Commission, were present at meetings and evening gatherings in Beijing. 

During their travels and visits to classrooms in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas, the U.S. delegation learned about a nationwide program of arts education that has been initiated throughout China. This program represents an unprecedented collaborative effort that is, according to Lin, a direct result of the exchange carried out with the Center over the past six years under the support of the RBF. 

Between the fall of 1985 and the spring of 1987, China and the United States are exchanging three teams of researchers. These teams consist of specialists in curriculum development, administration, psychology, classroom teaching, and teacher training, in both general education and pre-professional arts training. 

The exchange project undertakes to examine methods of teacher training, a major concern for China as it seeks to modernize and universalize its precollegiate curriculum. Some staggering statistics were quoted to the research team from the United States during its March visit to China. Sichuan Province, with one-tenth of China’s population and roughly one-tenth of China’s 860,000 elementary schools, needs an additional 10,000 music teachers in order to provide music training to all primary schools students. The combined total of yearly graduates from the teacher training department of the Sichuan Conservatory and the music department of the provincial teachers college currently numbers about ninety. In the face of such need, it is easy to see why China has shown a strong commitment to this project and why teacher training forms one of the project’s most crucial components for the Chinese. 

An aspect of the project that is of central interest to the United States is the place of the arts in the general education curriculum. As the United States embarks on a reappraisal of its educational system, this question poses a significant challenge. 

A culminating binational conference will be held in the United States during the summer of 1987. The conference will bring together the participants in the three-year exchange from both countries, along with other specialists, to evaluate the data collected and to develop policy recommendations for training in the arts for both China and the United States. 

Chinese Artists In America

PEN Symposium Kicks Off Writers’ April Visit

Less than twenty-four hours after arriving in the United States, a delegation of distinguished Chinese writers participated in a literary symposium at the New York headquarters of the PEN American Center. The delegation was headed by essayist Qin Mu, and included China’s youngest professional writer to have traveled abroad as an official representative of the Chinese Writers’ Association (CWA) twenty-seven-year-old short story writer Tie Ning. Also in the delegation was Anhui poet Yan Zhen. The three were accompanied by Wang Hongjie, an interpreter with the Chinese Writers’ Association. Wang Hongjie has escorted many Western writers in China, among them Herman Wouk on his 1982 visit arranged by the Center and E. L. Doctorow and Galway Kinnell on their 1983 trip.

Qin Mu is vice chairman of the Guangdong Branch of the Chinese Writers’ Association; deputy editor-in-chief of the Guangzhou Evening News; and author of several collections of essays—among them Flower Town, Tide and Boat, and the Essays of Qin Mu.

China is a member of International PEN, an association of poets, playwrights, essayists, editors, and novelists. The Center and the PEN American Center cooperated to arrange and publicize the symposium, which was attended by an audience of about 100.

Francine du Plessix Gray, Galway Kinnell, Bernard Malamud, and Jayne Anne Phillips joined the Chinese writers on the dais to discuss trends in both American and Chinese contemporary poetry, short stories, and nonfiction essays. Tie Ning, in response to a question from Bernard Malamud, gave a compelling description of the need for something beyond character and plot to distinguish contemporary short story writing. Her own stories, she explained, are relatively thin on character and plot, concentrating instead on the creation of an “atmosphere”—an “emotional environment.”

Galway Kinnell asked the Chinese writers, “How’s poetry doing?” Yan Zhen assured him that Chinese poetry is very much alive and well, and is being written widely, especially by the young. 

For Francine du Plessix Gray, who had traveled to China in the fall of 1984 as a member of a delegation organized by UCLA, the symposium offered the chance to continue her dialogue with Chinese writers and also to meet again her interpreter on that trip, Wang Hongjie. Gray asked whether current Chinese literature reflected the particular interests of women. Tie Ning asserted that, even though China lacks a “feminist literature” movement, the concerns of women are being freely reflected by today’s authors.

Jayne Anne Phillips asked to hear the plot of one of Tie Ning’s stories. Tie Ning obliged, to the great interest of the audience, telling the story that has been made into an award-winning movie in China, “A Red Blouse Without Buttons.”

Bernard Malamud summed up by expressing gratitude, on behalf of himself and the other PEN panelists, for having had the opportunity to speak so openly with contemporary Chinese writers. He also expressed surprise and pleasure at the breadth and range of topics that the Chinese feel free to discuss and write about.

The event’s success led WBAI radio to request a tape for local broadcasting in New York.

Among the other highlights of the delegation’s New York visit were professional meetings held at Columbia University and a reception held at The New York Public Library. During a tour of the latter, the delegates were shown the computerized cataloguing of the library’s collection. They were delighted to find that some of their own works were among the vast holdings of the library. The reception, held in President Vartan Gregorian’s office, gave the delegates the opportunity to meet some of the Chinese diplomatic community, among them Ambassador and Mrs. Xie Qimei, long-time friends of the Center. Ambassador Xie was the Minister Counselor at the Chinese Liaison Office and Chinese Embassy in Washington from 1973-81, and was instrumental in our earliest exchange projects. The reception was also attended by Center advisory council members, consultants, and supporters. 

The delegation of writers spent two-and-a-half weeks traveling from New York to Boston, Washington, D.C., Chicago, and San Francisco, meeting both formally and informally with writers, editors, literary scholars, and teachers of writing in each city. Ken Hao traveled with them as their interpreter.

In Boston, the writers visited Harvard University, met with staff members from David Godine Publishers and Partisan Review, and talked with representatives of the city of Boston (which has an active interest in China and shares a sister-city agreement with the Chinese city of Hangzhou).

In Washington, the writers’ activities included visits to the Library of Congress, the Kennedy Center, and many favorite sightseeing spots and attendance at a performance of Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Nights Dream at The Folger Library.

In Chicago, the delegation met writers and teachers of journalism at Columbia College, and traveled to a working farm in the area. The delegation, fascinated by the visit, compared the midwest farm to Chinese farms with which they had gained some familiarity during the Cultural Revolution.

The final stop on their trip was San Francisco, where they visited Stanford University. Meetings with writers and a tour of the Stanford campus brought to a close the successful visit of this delegation.  

Arts Education—Focus for Fall 1984

On October 31, 1984, a delegation of Chinese specialists in arts education arrived for a twenty-four-day examination of arts teaching in U.S. schools. Their seven-city visit marked the kickoff of a three-year exchange supported by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) that the center is conducting in collaboration with Harvard’s Project Zero.

Each city’s activities were planned and carried out with tremendous support from the local communities.* In New York, the Center’s headquarters, support came from the Center staff, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF), and many local hosts.

Wang Baihua (left) chatting with art teachers of the Mamaroneck (NY) High School. Interpreter Ken Hao (center) is assisting; delegation member Lü Zhengwu is seated on the far right
Wang Baihua (left) chatting with art teachers of the Mamaroneck (NY) High School. Interpreter Ken Hao (center) is assisting; delegation member Lü Zhengwu is seated on the far right

While in New York, the delegation visited Mamaroneck High School and several Mamaroneck elementary schools, the Juilliard School, the Fiorello H. La Guardia High School of Music and the Arts, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, and Columbia University’s Teachers College. The delegation also met with faculty members from Columbia’s School of the Arts. In addition to the requisite New York sightseeing, the Chinese specialists attended a Young People’s Concert at Lincoln Center.

The four specialists—Professor Wu Zuqiang, Wang Baihua, and Lü Zhengwu (representing the Ministry of Culture) and Ji Junshi (representing the Ministry of Education) observed student band and orchestra rehearsals and classes in oil painting, sketching, sculpture, pottery, modern dance, ballet, television, and drama.

On Election Day, the delegation traveled by train to Boston. There they enjoyed an evening of viewing election returns—a decidedly American experience—in the home of Mr. and Mrs. David Rockefeller, Jr. Project Zero, with headquarters at Harvard University, served as the local host for the delegation during their stay in Boston. Among the many institutions visited were the Massachusetts College of Art; Harvard University’s Office for the Arts, Music Department, Graduate School of Design, Carpenter Center for Visual Arts, Fogg Art Museum, and Graduate School of Education; Milton Academy; the Boston Children’s Museum; the New England Conservatory of Music; the Council for the Arts at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and the Museum of Fine Arts. The delegation also met and had dinner with a well-known supporter of education in the arts—Joan Kennedy.

From Boston, the delegates flew to Washington, where they visited the Fillmore Arts Center, the Sidwell Friends Elementary School, and the Model Secondary School for the Deaf at Gallaudet College. 

At a reception given by the Chinese Embassy, the delegates had the opportunity to meet the then-Ambassador, Zhang Wenjin, and Madame Zhang, and many members of the Washington community involved in arts education. In addition, the Education Department of the Kennedy Center arranged for the delegates to meet representatives of professional arts associations and arts advocacy organizations. An evening performance of La Boheme gave the visitors the chance to see the Kennedy Center in all its glory.

The next stop on the itinerary was Memphis, Tennessee. There, with Germantown High School serving as the local host, the entire community came out in full force to make the China delegation feel welcome. The mayors of both Germantown and Shelby County greeted the four at the airport and participated in a formal press conference. The delegates received a police motorcycle escort to and from the Memphis airport, and a Germantown sheriff drove the delegates everywhere they went during the visit. In fact, the citizens of Germantown literally rolled out the red carpet for the visitors at a reception at the Municipal Center, and many members of the local community were hosts to the delegation at meals and get-togethers.

A visit to Memphis State University proved especially interesting, because the delegates met professors there who had trained many of the current Germantown Elementary and High School teachers whom the delegates had observed teaching.

In New Orleans the delegation visited the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts (NOCCA); McDonogh 15 Elementary School; and Sun Oak, a Cajun restoration home that has been used as the site for a joint Tulane University/local junior high school interdisciplinary project in the arts. 

Through the efforts of local hosts, the delegates visited the headquarters of K & B Pharmaceuticals. There they saw a newly burgeoning form of arts education in the United States—corporate art collecting and exhibiting. Amazed and intrigued by some of the modern works on display, the delegates left with an expanded understanding of the ways in which art is part of U.S. society. 

Wu Zuqiang with Minneapolis public high school brass players
Wu Zuqiang with Minneapolis public high school brass players

In the “twin cities” of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, the Minneapolis Public Schools system arranged a five-school, seven-hour whirlwind introduction to the teaching of the arts in the Minneapolis schools.

Other professional visits were made to the Walker Art Center, the Children’s Theatre Company and School, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, and the House of Hope Presbyterian Church where the Chinese observed the use of the Orff technique to teach music to young children. The delegation attended a Guthrie Theater production of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, which proved that Shakespeare—at least in this instance—transcends linguistic and cultural barriers.

In San Francisco and the surrounding area, the delegates met with the Chinese Consul General, Chen Shuyu, and visited the Music Department of the University of California at Berkeley. A breathtaking, if somewhat hair raising, trip up the Pacific Coast from San Francisco to Bolinas was made to give the delegates a day at the Bolinas- Stinson school. At this school the Chinese travelers observed students working in many crafts shops and art rooms and sharing committee reports on life in China—these last researched in honor of the visitors. The trip provided the delegation members with a stunning view of the Pacific Ocean before crossing it to return home. 

*Local hosts in all cities visited by our delegations or by individual Chinese artists are crucial to the success of the Center’s programs. We wish to express our gratitude to the countless people who have contributed time, money, ingenuity, and energy to our efforts. We apologize to any individual or institution we have not mentioned by name. Omissions result from space limitations only.

The Center would like to give special recognition to the staff of Project Zero for their efforts in the three-year collaboration. Headed by Dr. Howard Gardner, the research and coordination on the China project has been handled by Dr. Ellen Winner, Wendy Zeldin (who has subsequently left for a Library of Congress job in Washington, D.C.), Connie Wolf, and the newest member of their team, Kathy Lowry. 

Update: As an afterword on the fall visit of the arts education delegation, we are pleased to announce that Germantown High School received second place in the documentary event division of the 1985 Hometown U.S.A. Video Festival for “China to Germantown: An Arts Exchange.”

The Germantown winner was selected from among 1,000 entries submitted to the National Federation of Local Cable Programmers from 258 cities in 35 states. Most festival entries were written, edited, and produced by adults, not by high-school students.

The 30-minute videotape follows the entire three-day visit of the delegation and was produced by Andrew Dunn and Chris Parnell, students in the television production program at Germantown High School. Frank Bluestein, the students’ instructor and programming director for Germantown Cablevision, was executive producer for the video production. Germantown Cablevision, sponsor for the school’s entry in the contest, is owned by Dowden Communications, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.

The videotape was taken to China in March for a private showing to its subjects—the November 1984 delegates. 

Young Violinists: Guo Li and Yu Yen

Violin students Guo Li and Yu Yen, from the Shanghai Conservatory of Music and the Hubei Arts Academy, respectively, received scholarships for a third year of study at the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. The Conservatory showed its faith in the promising talents of these two young women by renewing its financial support and by admitting them to the Artists Diploma Program. Brought to the United States in 1982 to study with violin teacher Dorothy DeLay, who had identified the two on a 1981 Center-sponsored trip to China, Ms. Guo and Ms. Yu have received grants from Mr. and Mrs. George D. O’Neill, the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, Mrs. Robert S. Tangeman, and the Aspen Music School, in addition to their support from the Cincinnati College-Conservatory. This collective support has enabled the two musicians to continue their studies in the United States. They expect to complete the Artists Diploma Program with a Major in Strings at the end of the 1985-86 academic year as students of Mr. Kurt Sassmannshaus.

As members of the Cincinnati Philharmonia, Guo Li and Yu Yen performed at Carnegie Hall in New York City on March 4, 1985, in a concert that was favorably reviewed by New York Times music critic John Rockwell.

During the summer of 1984, both students performed and attended classes at the Aspen Music Festival and performed at the Grand Teton Festival in Wyoming; during the 1985 summer season they returned to the Aspen Music Festival.

Luce Grant Funds Visual Arts Exchange

In 1983, the Henry Luce Foundation—one of the Center’s earliest supporters—gave the Center a grant to expand programs in the visual arts to match its extensive programs in the performing arts. With the support of a $45,000 grant, the Center was able to conduct a study to assess China’s needs and abilities in the visual arts. Over the course of three trips to China, Center director Chou Wenchung visited each of the major academies of fine arts in China—in Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Xi’an, and Guangzhou. In meetings with faculty members and administrators in these arts academies and in the fine arts departments of the major universities, China’s priorities were identified.

In China, there is a consensus that the design arts are of major concern. For example, the Chinese have made a significant commitment to outdoor sculpture: national competitions in China focus much attention on this art form. In response to this interest, and at the request of the Chinese Artists’ Association, two Chinese sculptors visited the United States in May and June of 1985.

Zhao Ruiying (left) and Wu Huiming studying George Bellows' lithograph "in the Park Dark" at the Continental Bank headquarters in Chicago. Emily Nixon, associate corporate art curator, discusses the print.
Zhao Ruiying (left) and Wu Huiming studying George Bellows' lithograph "in the Park Dark" at the Continental Bank headquarters in Chicago. Emily Nixon, associate corporate art curator, discusses the print.

The Center designed a three-week program that emphasized art for public spaces and took the two visitors to New York, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Seattle, and San Francisco. Ken Hao served as interpreter.

Zhao Ruiying, associate professor at the sculpture studio of the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing, and Wu Huiming, sculptor at the Shanghai Oil Painting and Sculpture Institute, arrived in New York on May 29, 1985. Their busy schedule included tours of the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modem Art, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In New York, the artists also visited major galleries and the studios of many sculptors, including that of Richard Serra. The visit of the Chinese artists coincided with the public debate over Serra’s “Tilted Arc,” a large, metal outdoor sculpture in New York’s Foley Square. The issues of artistic freedom, the public good, and commitment of government funds to the arts were all of great interest to the Chinese. The subsequent decision to remove Serra’s sculpture was noted in China, where the visiting artists continue to be in communication with the Center and with many of the artists they met while in the United States.

An unusual approach to corporate art was shown to the Chinese sculptors in a visit to Fel-Pro Inc., an automotive gasket factory in Skokie, Illinois. Ted Gall, sculptor on staff at the factory, uses scrap material to create works of art inspired by the factory. These are displayed throughout the plant. Zhao Ruiying and Wu Huiming found the combination of art and industry fascinating, and felt that it could have relevance for China as China faces the challenge of modernizing while trying to retain aesthetic and creative traditions.

Seattle is an American city with active government support for public art; conversations with officials of the Seattle Arts Commission indicated to the visiting Chinese the ways in which different levels of government can coordinate their work and complement each other ‘s activities.

Early in their visit, Prof. Zhao and Ms. Wu remarked on the high quality of metal casting in this country. To meet their interest in this technical aspect of the art, the Center arranged tours of two art foundries in the San Francisco area. The visits to the Artworks Foundry in Berkeley and the Norhammer Art Foundry in Oakland gave the sculptors an opportunity to discuss technical questions with American experts. Before leaving for China on June 20, the artists spent a day with sculptor Jacques Schnier; visited San Francisco museums, galleries, and studios; and saw some of the scenic highlights of that city and its environs.

American Artists In China

Americans Make Music in China

As in the past, the Center’s choice of musicians sent to China this year was based on a combination of each musician’s unique contribution to his or her field and an assessment of China’s needs. Pianists Joseph Bloch, Frederick Moyer, and Rudolf Firkusny; trombonist David Langlitz; strings professor Robert Klotman; and conductor Julius Hegyi spent periods of two to four weeks in China from the fall of 1984 through the spring of 1985.

Joseph Bloch

Joseph Bloch spent four weeks at the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing. Bloch traveled to China following his retirement from the Juilliard School, where he taught piano literature and interpretation to generations of music students. During his Beijing visit, eighty musicians from all over China, including Guangzhou, Shenyang, and Chengdu, attended his series of lecture/recitals on piano literature from the early eighteenth century through Schonberg and Scriabin.

Joseph Bloch teaching a student at the Central Conservatory of Music
Joseph Bloch teaching a student at the Central Conservatory of Music

Conductors in Beijing took Bloch by surprise when they requested a session devoted to the concerti of Mozart. Using the libraries of the Conservatory and of individual piano professors, Bloch was able to cull the music necessary to meet the request.

The Conservatory also arranged for selected students to have “private” lessons. Each lesson was actually attended by about twenty students and teachers. In two weeks at the Xi’an Conservatory, Bloch repeated the lecture/recital series and gave additional private lessons. 

The Shanghai Conservatory subsequently invited him to return to China in September of 1985 for four weeks.

Frederick Moyer

Almost immediately following Joseph Bloch’s China visit, Frederick Moyer spent two weeks visiting Beijing, Xi’an, and Shanghai, performing and giving master classes.

Acclaimed in a New York Times review as a “first-class young pianist,” Moyer was enthusiastically received in China. Moyer’s past concert appearances in the United States have included performances with the Philadelphia and Minnesota Orchestras, the Buffalo Philharmonic, and the Boston Pops. His concert tours abroad have taken him to Japan, Hong Kong, India, and Greece.

Although most of his time in China was spent giving performances, Moyer found that listening to the students play was the most intriguing aspect of the trip. Those students he heard were technically excellent, even though they were somewhat lacking in stage presence and stylistic understanding. On balance Moyer felt that given the relatively recent introduction of Western music into China and the ban on the playing of Western music imposed during the Cultural Revolution, the level of playing was “truly remarkable.”

Prior to his trip to China, Moyer arranged for a considerable contribution of sheet music to each of the three conservatories visited. The gift of sheet music was made possible by a grant from the Astral Foundation.

David Langlitz

A lack of highly skilled brass players led China to invite David C. Langlitz, principal trombonist of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra. Recipient of the 1984 Fulbright Performing Artist Award, Langlitz spent the 1984-85 academic year playing first trombone with the Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra and teaching at Seoul National University, South Korea. His trip to China was made from Korea.*

David Langlitz conducting a master class at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music
David Langlitz conducting a master class at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music

Upon the musician’s arrival at the Hongqiao Airport in Shanghai, a trombone professor from the Shanghai Conservatory of Music greeted Langlitz with the announcement that he was only the third Western trombonist to visit in the past 30 years. His visit was considered so significant that musicians gathered in Shanghai from all over the country to attend his master classes and recitals. Each lecture and performance was recorded, and tapes were broadly distributed.

After ten days at the Shanghai Conservatory, Langlitz went to the Central Conservatory in Beijing. Because of a recent fire in one of the dormitories, school was not in session. However, trombone specialists returned to the Conservatory for two days of master classes and a recital. Greatly impressed by the voracious desire to learn that was demonstrated by these Chinese musicians, Langlitz canceled all sight seeing plans to devote himself completely to teaching.

Robert Klotman

In mid-May, Indiana University professor Robert H. Klotman brought his considerable skill in music education to China, where he spent two weeks teaching at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. His work there included conducting the Conservatory’s orchestra, coaching twenty-two violinists and four violists from the Conservatory and its affiliated middle school, and delivering lectures on conducting and on Western composition.

According to Klotman, “all of the string students who performed for me were extremely well trained. They displayed an astounding amount of sensitivity in their performance of great Western solo literature. Their technique was phenomenal.” He therefore concentrated on instructing the Chinese students in interpretive performance styles for music from differing historical periods. The students responded quickly and successfully to his suggestions.

A composer from Shanghai who had been in residence at Indiana University had informed Klotman that Chinese musicians know relatively little about contemporary Western music. Klotman therefore traveled to China with scores and tapes of Krzysztof Penderecki’s “Threnody” and Donald Erb’s Concerto for Contra-Bassoon. The Shanghai students and faculty members were fascinated by the notation of non-traditional musical sounds.

Based on his experience at the Shanghai Conservatory, Klotman returned from China saying that “within the next ten years a substantial number of the world’s leading violin soloists will come from China.” 

Rudolf Firkusny

In late May, renowned pianist Rudolf Firkusny traveled to Beijing, where he gave a recital and master classes at the Central Conservatory of Music. A veteran performer, Firkusny also played with the Central Philharmonic Orchestra, where his concert was met with cheers. In a May 31,1985, review, appearing in the English language China Daily, music critics and performers hailed Firkusny as “the finest pianist yet to perform in China.” Firkusny, for his part, found the orchestra very skilled, the students talented, and the audience receptive and enthusiastic.

Rudolf Firkusny coaching a student at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music
Rudolf Firkusny coaching a student at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music

After several days in Beijing, Firkusny, accompanied by his daughter Veronique, traveled to Xi’an, where he performed at the Conservatory and taught several piano students. The last stop, Shanghai, also included a recital and a master class. One impressive piano student at the Shanghai Conservatory was subsequently selected to participate in the Chopin Competition in Warsaw during the fall of 1985.

Julius Hegyi

Bringing the program year to a close, Julius Hegyi, music director and conductor of the Albany Symphony, spent five weeks in China during June and July of 1985. Hegyi worked with both the Central Philharmonic, in Beijing, and the Shanghai Symphony Orchestra. His two public concerts in each city received great audience acclaim. The all-Tchaikovsky concerts in Shanghai —scheduled by the Chinese to commemorate the 145th anniversary of the birth of the composer—were sold out days before the performances. Since his return to the United States, Hegyi, who frequently performs on the violin and viola, has been collecting and sending some vital materials to China. Included in the shipments have been sheet music, music cassettes, and violin strings.

Julius Hegyi in front of Shanghai Symphony publicity announcing an all-Tchaikovsky program featuring pianist Li Jian, and conducted hy Hegyi
Julius Hegyi in front of Shanghai Symphony publicity announcing an all-Tchaikovsky program featuring pianist Li Jian, and conducted hy Hegyi

*Travel costs to China were partially covered by a grant from the Asian Cultural Council.

Theater Specialist in Shanghai and Beijing

Norris Houghton, renowned expert on Soviet theater, was one of the cofounders of New York’s Phoenix Theatre and has served on numerous influential panels on the arts in America, including the Rockefeller Brothers Fund Panel on Performing Arts and the Arts Education and Americans Panel. 

Houghton spent five weeks in China during the fall of 1984 at the invitation of the Shanghai Drama Institute (SDl) and the Chinese Theatre Association (CTA).* At the SDI, Houghton delivered a series of lectures on stage technology, theater architecture, and scenic lighting and design; the organization and operation of American theater, encompassing Broadway, Off-Broad way, Off-Off  Broadway, regional, commercial, and non-profit theaters; professional theater training; foreign influences on modern and contemporary American drama; and contemporary American playwrights. He found his audience—which usually consisted of seventy to eighty faculty members, graduate students, and some undergraduates—eager to learn and willing to ask questions.

From Shanghai, Houghton made professional visits to both Nanjing and Hangzhou, where his lectures were also well received. During a one-week visit to Beijing, he spoke at the Central Drama Institute and participated in two seminars organized by the Beijing People’s Art Theatre.

Norris Houghton speaking with members of the audience after a talk in Nanjing
Norris Houghton speaking with members of the audience after a talk in Nanjing

The Chinese hosts, anxious for Houghton’s opinions on their productions, arranged for him to see a variety of shows during his stay. Although Houghton knew no Chinese (some what hampering his ability to evaluate the performances), he felt that the work was, in general, quite good, and, in some productions, excellent. However, he noticed a conflict between style and substance in the plays he saw, with experimentation evident in the staging but not in the acting or in the writing of new plays. 

At Houghton’s suggestion, the SDl is now receiving several major American drama journals on a regular basis. In addition, nine volumes of modern and contemporary English-language plays and criticism have been shipped to Shanghai, based on a list he compiled. He has also worked to supply the SDl with a complete, well-edited set of Shakespeare’s plays to fill a gap he observed during his visit. Because the Institute had planned productions of The Merry Wives of Windsor, Cymbeline, and The Taming of the Shrew, the Center sent texts of those three plays first. The rest have followed since. 

As exciting as it was to see young people working energetically in the theater, some of the most memorable moments of Houghton’s visit to China came during conversations with older people who confided that reading his Moscow Rehearsals, several decades earlier, had changed their lives. One specialist asked him whether he owned a Chinese-language edition of the book. Houghton replied that he did not (in fact, he was unaware until that moment that a Chinese edition existed). In spite of Houghton’s protests, the Chinese gentleman insisted on presenting his own copy, treasured for some forty years, to the author as an expression of his admiration and appreciation.

*Mr. Houghton’s visit and the subsequent donation of theatrical publications were made possible by a grant from the Mary Livingston Griggs and Mary Griggs Burke Foundation.

The Center Acts as Host to Many Visiting Delegations Invited by Other Organizations

Among the many activities that the Center undertakes is acting as host for Chinese delegations visiting at the invitation of other organizations; the Center often serves as consultant in the planning of a portion of the delegates’ U.S. stay. Exchanges in 1984-85 range over diverse fields in the arts, including literature, theater, architecture, music, translation, publication, and even the exchange process itself.

Zhu Ziqi

The Center arranged one such program for Chinese poet and executive council member of the Chinese Writers’ Association, Zhu Ziqi, who came to the United States in September of 1984 as a guest of the State Department. The Center was asked by the United States Information Agency (U.S.I.A.) to plan an event at which Zhu Ziqi and his colleague, Zhu Ding, could meet members of the New York literary community. To answer this request, we held an afternoon poetry reading and discussion at Columbia University. Center director Chou Wen-chung greeted the twenty-five participants and guests, who included poets, professors of literature, editors, and publishers. Professor Robert Towers, then newly appointed chairman of the Writing Division in Columbia’s School of the Arts, presided.

Poet Zhu Ziqi (center) discussing his work, with moderator Robert Towers (right) and interpreter Jay Sailey
Poet Zhu Ziqi (center) discussing his work, with moderator Robert Towers (right) and interpreter Jay Sailey

The three poets read from their own poetry. Zhu Ziqi read two allegorical poems from a recent collection, Spring Grass. “Spring Rain” and “The Brush” were read in Chinese, with written translations provided by Dr. Jay Sailey, who was traveling with the writers as their interpreter. 

Professor Parker Huang, poet and retired senior lecturer at Yale University, read “The Himalayas” and “A Candle” from a collection of his own poetry that includes English translations. And American poet and professor of English at Columbia, Kenneth Koch, read his poem “The Circus.” An evocative and personal poem, “The Circus” prompted discussion of the differences in subject matter treated in American and Chinese poetry. 

Following the poetry reading, Towers led a discussion on both content and form in the modern and contemporary poetries in China and the United States, and of the difficulties of translating poetry from one language to the other. A reception followed, at which the participants and guests had the opportunity to pursue the issues sparked by the poetry reading. 

Chinese Attend International Theater Conference in Italy

Acting as a liaison for Professor Benito Ortolani, chairman of the Theater Department at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, the Center arranged for Chinese representatives to attend two theater conferences in Italy. Liu Kaiyu, Beijing theater critic and secretary of the Chinese Theatre Association’s Secretariat, and Yu Weijie, graduate student at the Shanghai Drama Institute, participated in the International Conference on Theatre Research Data in Bellagio, September 17-21, 1984. Ortolani, who is chairman of the Research Committee, American Society for Theater Research, served as co-director of the Conference.

Following the Bellagio Conference, the Chinese attended the International Congress on East/West Theatre, held in Rome, September 24-28. They returned to Beijing and Shanghai committed to efforts to index Chinese theater documents—journals, books, catalogues, folios, and so on—for use in an international data bank. The fourteen countries represented at the meetings were: Canada, China, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, England, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, the Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, the United States, and West Germany. 

U.S.-China Architecture Glossary Planned

Another successfully co-sponsored project took place in mid-October, 1984. During the summer, the Center had learned that the Office of International Affairs of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) would invite a delegation composed of architects and engineers from China to visit the United States. HUD and the Bureau of Science and Technology of the Chinese Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection (MURCEP) had agreed some months earlier to collaborate on the compilation of a Chinese-English glossary of terms related to housing, construction management, and urban planning. Publication of the 1,000-term glossary is scheduled for 1986.

After a week of meetings in Washington, the delegation came to New York for a second week of meetings. Prompted by the Center’s ongoing interest in architecture-related exchanges between the United States and China, the Center—in conjunction with Columbia’ s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation—invited the delegation to visit Columbia.

Lin Zhijun, deputy director of MURCEP’s Bureau of Science and Technology, was the delegation’s leader. Joining him were Zhang Long, senior editor of the China Building Technology Development Center; Sun Huasheng, architect and urban planner with the Chinese Academy of Urban Planning and Design; and Sun Hanpu, engineer with the Institute of Building Economics of the China Building Technology Development Center.

The delegation greatly enjoyed its visit to the architecture library of Avery Hall. There the group learned about the library’s plans to computerize all listings and saw the rare book collection, which includes old volumes from China as well as carefully preserved maps from around the world. Discussions on exchanges in the field of architecture and urban planning continued over dinner. 

Ambassador Theodore R. Britton, Assistant to the Secretary at HUD, and John Geraghty, Senior Program Officer at HUD, accompanied the delegation throughout its visit to New York. Kathleen Dell’Orto, a lexicographer who is writing the English definitions of Chinese terms in the glossary, also participated in the two weeks of meetings. Ms. Dell’Orto, Professors Klaus Herdeg and Sigurd Grava of Columbia’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation; Peng Feifei, an architect in the Science Section of the Embassy of the P.R.C.; Mrs. Vernell Britton; and Chou Wen-chung, Susan Rhodes, and Margot Landman, of the Center, were also present at the dinner. Frank Lee accompanied the delegation as its American interpreter.

Beijing Architect Lü Zengbiao

Building on the HUD exchanges and the Center’s many other past programs in architecture, the Center staff agreed to arrange an extensive program for Lü Zengbiao, visiting architecture professor from Beijing. The request for such a program came from the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People’s Republic of China (CSCPRC). In response to the CSCPRC’s request, the Center set up a professional schedule for Lü’s eight-week stay that began in mid-October of 1984. Lü Zengbiao, associate professor of architecture at Qinghua University in Beijing, is editor-in-chief of World Architecture, one of China’s foremost architecture journals, and a member of the editorial board of Architect, also a Chinese journal.

While in the United States, Lü met with architects in private practice, visited and lectured at universities across the country, and explored modern and historic buildings of interest in urban centers and suburban and rural areas. Using New York City as a base, Lü made side trips to New Haven, Boston, and Washington, D.C. After leaving the East Coast, he visited Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.

Philip Johnson was among the many architects with whom Professor Lü met to discuss issues in contemporary U.S. architecture. Several years ago, Lü had published a major article on Philip Johnson’s architectural career (he plans to write a monograph on Johnson in the next year or two).

Because of Lü’s particular interest in Western library design, the Center arranged tours of major public and private American libraries and meetings with architects responsible for library renovation. In his capacity as editor-in-chief of World Architecture, Lü discussed questions pertaining to architecture criticism with his counterparts across the United States.

In the course of his stay, Lü gave lectures on a variety of topics at colleges and universities across the country. His talks on “Housing Policy and Design in China Today” fascinated audiences at Columbia University and at Houston’s Rice University. He also spoke about ancient Chinese timber architecture, Chinese vernacular dwellings, and classical Chinese landscape gardening.

Musician Zhang Yan

Zhang Yan, renowned zheng player with China’s Oriental Song and Dance Troupe, was already visiting the United States when the Center arranged an East Coast lecture and performance tour for her in November of 1984, during which Ms. Zhang visited Yale, Harvard, Wesleyan, and the University of Maryland’s Baltimore campus. She also performed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art under the auspices of the Society for Asian Music.

Jon Pareles of the New York Times commented that in her playing “suspense, jubilation, martial pride, and the delicacy of wind on water were all suggested, clearly and skillfully….” The Chinese Music Ensemble of New York arranged to have Ms. Zhang’s performance at the Museum videotaped by Apple Television, a Chinese-language cable television station in New York.

Translator’s Delegation

A group of translators and editors from the China Translation and Publication Corporation (CTPC) visited the United States at the State Department’s invitation in February 1985. The three person delegation, led by Ms. Shen Guofen, deputy managing editor of CTPC, were guests of the Center at a breakfast meeting. The discussions with Center director Chou Wen-chung focused on future publications planned by CTPC and the great need for extensive translation of the contemporary literatures of both countries into each other’s languages. The delegation’s other two members were Xu Jihong, editor, and Zhang Yuanyi, copy editor at CTPC.

During their visit to the Columbia University Morningside campus, the three also spent time at the University’s Translation Center.

Feng Mu, Writer, Visits United States

The period from April to June of 1985 was one of intense activity for the Center. Among the many Chinese dignitaries to visit the United States during those months was Feng Mu, the influential vice chairman of the Chinese Writers’ Association.

This visit to the United States, Feng Mu’s second, was scheduled at the invitation of the State Department. In 1982, Feng acted as the head of a working delegation that engaged in a U.S.-China Writers Conference at Columbia University, organized by the Center. Accompanied on his 1985 visit by a younger writer, Liu Yazhou, Feng Mu said that this trip was designed to give him an opportunity to see more of America, and was not planned as a working trip. However, he was unable to resist the temptation to discuss literary matters while in the United States, renew old friendships with writers he had met in America and China over the years, and discuss with Chou Wen-chung exchanges planned for 1985 and beyond.

China International Culture Exchange Centre Delegation

In early May 1985, a twelve-member delegation arrived in the United States, representing the newly formed China International Culture Exchange Centre (CICEC). CICEC represents a new, and rapidly proliferating, type of exchange institution in China that will depend on money from the private sector for its ultimate survival.

Headed by Cheng Siyuan, vice chairman and secretary general of the Centre, this self-funded delegation included officials from ClCEC’s Beijing headquarters and from two of its regional branches.

CICEC, with an initial grant from the Chinese government, seeks international investment and programmatic and management ideas from around the world. This particular trip took the group from China to Hawaii, to the West Coast of the United States and several East Coast cities, including Washington, D.C., and New York; and then on to Japan.

ClCEC’s planned exchange work is comprehensive, encompassing exchanges in science, economics, and research, as well as culture. Because some of the CICEC work will be cultural, the Center arranged for the delegates to meet with officials at Lincoln Center.

CICEC has already broken ground for a headquarters building in Beijing, slated for completion in 1987. The delegates were delighted to compare notes with Lincoln Center representatives on the running of a major cultural center. 

The theatrical scope and budgetary scale of Lincoln Center’s operation are, they explained, much beyond CICEC’s plans and expectations. At the same time, their non-theatrical facilities will be more extensive than those of Lincoln Center. Despite the differences, officials of both organizations found much common ground for conversation. They discussed the challenge of ensuring full audiences, and talked about the problems involved in maintaining theaters with modern acoustical and stage equipment. Both cultural centers are also concerned with establishing an ongoing array of programming that will appeal to a local audience, and which, at the same time, will sustain international standards of excellence and will draw talent from around the world.

CICEC delegation on the Columbia University campus (left to right): Chou Wen-chung, Shi Hong, Cheng Siyuan (delegation leader), Yi-an Chou, and Wang Zhizi
CICEC delegation on Columbia University campus (left to right): Chou Wen-chung, Shi Hong, Cheng Siyuan (delegation leader), Yi-an Chou, and Wang Zhizi

At a meeting held by the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, the delegates were introduced to representatives of some of the major foundations supporting U.S.-China exchanges: the Ford Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. These foundation representatives described the functions of each of their organizations, and also the ways in which their various organizations interrelate. The CICEC delegates showed particular interest in this discussion, since the Chinese have no native counterpart to the private, non-profit, philanthropic foundation as we know it in the United States.

Two Delegations from the Chinese Theatre Association 

During the first week of June 1985, just one month after CICEC’s visit, a State Department-sponsored delegation f rom the Chinese Theatre Association (CTA) arrived in New York. Led by Liu Housheng, the prominent Executive Secretary of the CTA, the delegation included Zhu Lin and Liang Bolong. Ms. Zhu’s face may not be familiar to most Americans, but in China she is a famous actress. Among her many credits was the role of Linda Loman in the Beijing production of Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman. The staging of Salesman in the spring of 1983 was one of the most influential of the Center’s programs. It played to sell out crowds during its four-month engagement, and had by far the largest audience for a single theatrical production in China.

As part of the Center’s deep involvement with CTA in China, we assisted the U.S.I.A. by planning many of the delegation’s New York activities. This planning was done in collaboration with the Eugene O’Neill Theater Center.

Reunion at The Asia Society (left to right): Harrison E. Salisbury, Inge Morath, Arthur Miller, Zhu Lin, and interpreter Jay Sailey (partial view)
Reunion at The Asia Society (left to right): Harrison E. Salisbury, Inge Morath, Arthur Miller, Zhu Lin, and interpreter Jay Sailey (partial view)

One of the highlights of the delegation’s visit to New York was a welcoming reception, held in the headquarters building of The Asia Society. The Center, the O’Neill Center, and the China Council of The Asia Society were cohosts at this occasion—one that gave Liu Housheng and Zhu Lin a chance for a reunion wi th Arthur Miller and Inge Morath. Harrison E. Salisbury, a recent addition to the Center’s Advisory Council, was also present. Salisbury, who participated in the fall 1984 UCLA writers’ delegation to China, described that trip in the January 20 issue of the New York Times Book Review. A long-time observer of China, he was also host to the Feng Mu delegation from the Chinese Writers’ Association during its 1982 visit to the United States (see p. 12). Another important reunion occurred during this visit—that of the delegation with the president of the Eugene O’Neill Theater Center, George White. During the fall of 1984, Mr. White had staged O’Neill’s Anna Christie in Beijing in which Zhu Lin played the leading role of Anna. Others on the Anna Christie team, costume designer, Patricia Zipprodt; lighting designer, Ian Calderon; and set designer (and Center Advisory Council member), Ming Cho Lee, also had ample opportunity to renew friendships and discuss continuing projects.

In addition to seeing Cats, The Big River, and A Chorus Line, watching a rehearsal at La Mama; meeting Joseph Papp; and seeing many of New York’s sights, the delegation received a briefing on contemporary American theater at Columbia University. Contemporary trends in writing for television, the phenomenon of post-Vietnam, “angry young men” writers, avant garde theater experimentation, the changing relationship between regional theater and Broadway, and the economic realities of writing for the theater were the discussion topics. The delegation members asked frequent questions, many of which reflected a deep concern that in an era of television’s increasing popularity (an era that China is just now entering) modern drama suffers irretrievably. American participants expressed different opinions on the precise nature of the influence of television. What was unanimous was the belief that its influence has been, and probably will continue to be, enormous. Although the meeting was small and informal, it was among the professional highlights for the Chinese visitors. 

Second Theater Delegation

In mid-June 1985, a second delegation representing the Theatre Association arrived in the United States. This delegation had been on an official visit to Canada, attending the Twenty-first World Congress of the International Theatre Institute, held in Montreal and Toronto from June 1 to June 8. As guests of the Center, China’s representatives to the Congress traveled from Canada to Washington, D. C., and New York. This group of four theater specialists saw many of the same plays and met some of the same people as the preceding delegation. The leader of the delegation, Fang Jie, is a well-known drama critic and Secretary of the Chinese Theatre Association’s Secretariat. Others in the group were Zhai Jianping, a playwright, and Xiao Man, a member of the editorial committee of Foreign Theater and theater translator with the CTA. Xiao is the niece of Wu Zuoren, one of China’s best known and most respected contemporary painters, and daughter of Herman Scherchen, the renowned German musician.

The delegation’s interpreter was Sun Zhongshu. Experienced at interpreting for meetings of U.S. and Chinese drama specialists, Mr. Sun had worked as an interpreter for George White’s Anna Christie team. Therefore, the New York visit of Fang Jie’s delegation also took on some of the aspects of a reunion.

Enjoying the warm hospitality of Center Advisory Council member Henry P. Sailer in Washington, the delegation had the opportunity to stay in a private American home. The four delegates saw The Count of Monte Cristo and Isn’t It Romantic? in Washington and A Chorus Line, Cats, and Singin’ in the Rain in New York.

After leaving New York, the delegation traveled to Los Angeles, where they were guests of Ms. Nancy Cooperstein, a member of the Artistic Advisory Board of the National Theatre of the Deaf (NTD), and of Mrs. Georgina Rothenberg, a member of NTD’s Board of Directors. A reception held in Los Angeles gave the NTD the opportunity to introduce the delegation to members of the California filmmaking community. The West Coast visit also gave the delegation and the NTD some time to work on plans for NTD’s forthcoming China tour in the spring of 1986.

The Fang Jie theater delegation was the final group in a spring that saw an unprecedented level of activity at the Center.

Photographic Exhibitions: Beijing and New York City

During the 1984-1985 program year, the Center was involved in two photographic exhibitions held in conjunction with China. The first, Beijing— Ancient and Modern, featured 90 photos of life in Beijing. It included pictures of magnificent ancient monuments, such as the Imperial Palace, as well as images of people engaged in ordinary tasks, such as selling eggs in an open air market and bringing pet birds to local parks for a daily airing.

The second exhibition was planned as a reciprocal event. New York—the City and Its People was held at the Working People’s Cultural Palace in Beijing from June 25 to July 17. The exhibit contained 100 photos of New York that ranged from the grandiose World Trade Center to the average hotdog stand and from the lofty Statue of Liberty to the native New Yorker relaxing in Central Park. 

Looking at a photograph of the Astor Garden Court of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of the New York- Beijing Sister City photo exhibit
Looking at a photograph of the Astor Garden Court of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of the New York- Beijing Sister City photo exhibit

The photos of Beijing were displayed for three weeks in New York’s City Gallery. A Chinese delegation, representing the People’s Government of the Beijing Municipality (PGBM), came to New York for the October 1 (National Day) opening. The delegation, led by Liu Yuling, Deputy Secretary-General of PGBM, included Chen Shenggeng, Division Chief, Liaison Division of PGBM; Zhou Yi, editor-in-chief, Beijing Arts and Photography Publishing House and director of the Beijing Photographers’ Association; and Li Wennian, Deputy Division Chief, Division of Business Affairs, Beijing People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries.

During their one-week stay in New York, the delegates visited the Columbia University campus and discussed future exchanges with Professor Chou Wen-chung.

The delegation also visited the Museum of the City of New York, where the delegates were greeted by Steven Miller, Senior Curator, who later served as curator for the exhibition of New York photos that was sent to China.

The two exhibitions comprised the first cultural exchange held under the New York-Beijing Friendship City Agreement, signed in New York in 1983 during a visit by Beijing’s mayor, Chen Xitong. A division of New York’s Sister City Program, the Friendship City Committee counts among its members Professor Chou Wen-chung and several of our advisory council members, namely, Geraldine Kunstadter, Robert B. Oxnam, I. M. Pei, and Arthur Rosen.

To celebrate the June opening of New York—the City and Its People and to represent Mayor Koch and the City of New York, a delegation went to Beijing for a week of festivities and professional meetings. The delegation was led by Gillian M. Sorensen, New York Commissioner for the United Nations and Consular Corps. The Center’s assistant director, Susan L. Rhodes, was a member of the committee that planned the exhibit, and was also a delegate.

Philip Morris Asia, Inc., sponsored the exhibition and sent its own delegation to the opening. Andrew Whist, vice president of Corporate Affairs from the New York World Headquarters office, headed their delegation

The Friendship City Committee delegation met with Beijing’s Mayor Chen Xitong and discussed future exchanges. Commissioner Sorensen reiterated Mayor Koch’s hope for a Chinese panda for New York. Mayor Chen was not very optimistic, saying that China’s “bear-cats” are so much in demand that the government has been forced to adopt a policy of restricting panda gifts to those countries that have no pandas already in residence. The Commissioner said that Mayor Koch would be willing to house a panda on a short-term basis. Mayor Chen promised to see what he could do. 

The Chinese press covered the exhibit opening in both the Chinese language Renmin Ribao (People’s Daily) and the English-language China Daily. The exhibit was well attended during its three weeks in Beijing; it subsequently traveled to Tokyo—another of New York’s sister cities.

Future exchanges between New York and Beijing are being planned, and will be carried out by the Friend ship City Committee during this year.

Rotation of the Advisory Council Brings New Members

The Center is pleased to welcome several new members to its Advisory Council, and to express its appreciation to those whose terms have been completed. First, we wish to convey our deep and sincere gratitude to A. Doak Barnett, John Chancellor, Milos Forman, Meyer Schapiro, and Yang Chen-ning, who were among our first advisers. We consider their support, advice, and counsel during the Center’s formative years crucial to its successful establishment.

At a time when we must release the above-mentioned five advisers from their responsibilities, we are proud and delighted to add the following new names to our existing Council. Our new members include Ana R. Daniel, Vice President, Strategic Development, Merrill Lynch Capital Markets. In addition to her position at Merrill Lynch, Mrs. Daniel is a member of the Development Committee of the Whitney Museum of American Art.

Another new member of the Council is Geraldine K. Kunstadter, director of the Host Family Program, City Commission for the United Nations and Consular Corps. Mrs. Kunstadter has been actively involved with the Center for several years, initiating and carrying out a major exchange of books on architecture and urban planning with China under a grant from the Albert Kunstadter Family Foundation. Mrs. Kunstadter and her husband, John, both officers of the Family Foundation, were the gracious hosts at a very successful fund-raiser held on behalf of the Center, at which a stunning oil painting, contributed by the internationally acclaimed Suzhou painter Chen Yifei, was raffled off.

In a surprising turn of events the winner of the raffle was Yi-an Chang, wife of Center director Chou Wen-chung. Much to her embarrassment—but also delight—the winning raffle ticket, pulled from an ancient bronze urn in the Kunstadter’s living room, was the one she held.

Ming Cho Lee, a Tony Award winning set designer who provided the backdrop for the Chinese production of Eugene O’Neill’s Anna Christie, has also agreed to serve as a Center adviser. Mr. Lee, on the faculty at Yale University, also serves on the Theater Panel of the New York State Council on the Arts. During the summer 1985 airing of the British television series about China, The Heart of the Dragon, Lee served as commentator on the episode “Creating.”

Another practicing artist, violinist Lin Cho-liang, known to the public as Jimmy Lin, has also joined the Council for a three-year term. Taiwan-born Lin received international praise for his 1983 concert in Tokyo at which he and Li Jian, a pianist born and raised in Shanghai, made cultural history by uniting musicians from both sides of the Taiwan Strait in a single concert. At the time of the concert, Lin Cho-liang was twenty-three and Li Jian still in his teens. Li Jian is currently in the United States studying with Mieczyslaw Horszowski at The Curtis Institute of Music. Jimmy Lin has given concert tours in the United States, Europe, and Asia.

Joseph W. Polisi, new president of the Juilliard School, brings to the Council his considerable skill and knowledge in the worlds of academic administration and music. Prior to assuming his position at Juilliard, Polisi served as dean of the College-Conservatory of Music at the University of Cincinnati.

Joseph E. Slater, president of the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, brings to the Center’s Advisory Council the perspective of long-term commitment to intercultural programming through government service and the work of non-profit organizations. Mr. Slater has served as a representative to NATO, as a member and director of the International Affairs program of the Ford Foundation, as a consultant to the U.S. Department of State, and as a trustee of The Asia Society.

The Center is also most fortunate to add to its Council two distinguished writers, editors, and long-time observers of China, Harrison E. Salisbury and Theodore H. White. Through his work at the New York Times, Mr. Salisbury has informed many readers on contemporary China in recent years. His report of a major United States- China Writers’ Conference, held in Beijing under the auspices of UCLA, made a significant contribution to American understanding of the current issues confronting today’s writers in China. Salisbury’s recently published The Long March: The Untold Story is an account of the author’s 1984 retracing of the famous path traveled by Mao Zedong and Mao’s followers.

Theodore White, familiar to many as the author of the Making of the President series, has provided some of the most insightful reportage on Asia in the twentieth century.

Finally, the Center’s two most recent additions to the Advisory Council are Joan W. Harris and Esther Hewlett. Both have demonstrated an ongoing commitment to the arts and especially to the encouragement and development of the arts in their home communities—Chicago and San Francisco, respectively. With the addition of these two valuable new advisers, the Center reinforces a national, rather than a regional or a local, outlook.

Mrs. Harris’ particular interest in opera, manifested by her position as Chairman of the Board of the Chicago Opera Theater, will bring an expertise that the Center hopes to tap heavily as we proceed with planning exchanges with China in the field of opera.

Mrs. Hewlett’s academic background in Asian studies, combined with her experience of living in Asia, will also prove an asset to the Center. We are expecting both of these advisers to contribute to the development of the Center’s broad range of programming, while adding their special local experience to help us build U.S.-China exchanges in those geographic regions of the United States that they know best.

We are gratified by the composition of our new Advisory Council and offer our deepest appreciation to those who have completed their terms, our gratitude to those who continue to serve, and our thanks and welcome to those who have recently joined our group. As the Center embarks on its eighth year, we are looking forward to working with our newly constituted Council to bring many of our program ideas to fruition, and to ensure the financial stability of the Center so that it may continue to carry out its valuable work. □

*As we were going to press, the Center was saddened to learn of Mr. White’s death. He will be greatly missed.

Staff Changes

In July of 1984, May Wu resigned as the Center ‘s Assistant Director to return to book editing. She has completed work on a three-volume edition of the principal writings of French economist and statesman Jacques Rueff for The Lehrman Institute, and is currently editing “Words and Images: Chinese Poetry, Calligraphy, and Painting,” a volume of symposium papers in honor of John M. Crawford, Jr., to be published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The Center’s director Chou Wen-chung and the current staff want to join together to thank Ms. Wu for the excellence of her work, to express appreciation for her unstinting efforts on behalf of the Center, and to wish her well in all her future personal and professional endeavors.

To replace her, Susan L. Rhodes joined the staff of the Center. Ms. Rhodes is a graduate of Queens College of the City University of New York. She studied Chinese in Princeton University’s Critical Language Program, and received an M.A. in Chinese language and literature from Columbia University.

Prior to her work at the Center, Ms. Rhodes taught Chinese language and literature at the University of Maryland and at the New School for Social Research. At The Asia Society from 1978 to 1984, she spent two years in New York and Washington in the Society’s China Council, editing and doing administrative work for The Asia Society’s national program of adult public education on China. During the next four years, Ms. Rhodes worked in the Society’s Education and Communications Department, becoming its Assistant Director and working as editor of Focus on Asian Studies. Focus, a journal for elementary and secondary school educators, is the only publication of its kind—a triannual resource manual designed to bring Asian studies into the pre-collegiate curriculum.

The newest member of the staff, Ken Hao, has worked for the Center on a free-lance basis since 1982 as an interpreter and escort of Chinese delegations and individual Chinese artists. Born in Singapore, and raised in the United States since the age of seven, Mr. Hao is bilingual in Chinese and English. An adjunct lecturer in sociology at St. Peter’s College in New Jersey and a Ph.D. candidate at Columbia University, Mr. Hao has the title Program Assistant at the Center in addition to his many other responsibilities. We look forward to working with him on a more permanent basis. □

Center Advisers, Consultants, and Alumni Earn New Honors

Among our Advisory Council members, professional consultants, and participants in past programs, many have earned special honors and recognition during the past year.

Novelist E. L. Doctorow, who traveled to China in the spring of 1983 under the Center’s auspices, was elected to membership in the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters (AAIAL). This honorary organization, chartered by Congress, includes among its members many artists involved in the Center: Louis S. Auchincloss, Leonard Bernstein, Galway Kinnell, George Segal, Susan Sontag, and Center director Chou Wen-chung.

Harrison E. Salisbury, who recently agreed to serve on the Center’s Advisory Council, was elected as one of the fifty members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Salisbury was chosen from the 250-member AAIAL in honor of his achievements as a journalist and historian.

As China increases its participation in the international arts community, its long-admired artists are being invited to join international arts organizations. Ba Jin, one of China’s most universally loved and respected fiction writers, was honored in 1985 by being the first Chinese literary artist to be elected as an honorary member of the AAIAL. At the age of 81, the author of Family holds the position of chairman of the Chinese Writers’ Association and is head of the Shakespeare Study Foundation of China’s Shakespeare Society.

Poet Galway Kinnell, who traveled to China with E. L. Doctorow, joined the small, illustrious group honored by the MacArthur Foundation with what is popularly called the “genius award.” The grant is an “unrestricted fellowship, awarded to exceptionally talented and promising individuals who have given evidence of originality, dedication to creative pursuits, and a capacity for self-direction.” As a recipient of a Mac-Arthur award, Kinnell joins another Center colleague. Dr. Howard Gardner, co-director of Harvard Project Zero and head of the research side of the Arts Education project described on page 1.

Both Doctorow and Kinnell have published new books during the past year-and-a-half. Lives of the Poets and World’s Fair join Ragtime and The Book of Daniel among Doctorow’s titles. The Past is Kinnell’s most recent book of poems.

Milos Forman, professor of film at Columbia’ s School of Theater and Film, one of the Center’s original Advisory Council members and a long time consultant to the Center, was one of the unqualified stars on the evening of March 25,1985, when Forman’s Amadeus received eight Academy Awards. The Academy conferred on Amadeus awards for best picture, actor, director, sound, screenplay adaptation, makeup, art direction, and costumes.

In Germany, Jacob Lateiner was granted the coveted Schumann Prize for Pianists in July of 1985 at the Schumann anniversary celebration. Lateiner spent seven weeks at Beijing’s Central Conservatory in 1981, teaching piano and offering two concerts.

Center Advisory Council member Martin E. Segal announced that he plans to head a new event on New York’s performing arts scene—a biennial summerfest. Segal declared his intention of stepping down as chairman of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in June of 1986 in order to organize the event to be called “The New York International Festival of the Arts, Inc.” We hope, of course, that China will be among the international participants in this new festival. As well as working on the Center’s Advisory Council, Segal has helped the Center through his personal generosity, contributing tickets for performances that range from the Young People’s Concerts to the New York City Ballet. We congratulate him on his decision and wish him well in his new endeavor.

Painter Chen Yifei, a long-time Center associate, is fast becoming a household word among American art enthusiasts. In the fall of 1984, Chen enjoyed a second sell-out show of forty paintings at New York’s Hammer Galleries. In the spring of 1985, the United Nations also recognized Chen Yifei’s talent by choosing his oil painting entitled “Bridge of Peace” as the design for a 1985 commemorative stamp. The stamp is available, in 22¢ and $3.00 denominations, through the World Federation of U.N. Associations.

Sometimes it is necessary to read the Chinese newspapers to hear of honors that come to alumni of our past programs. Chen Xieyang, the young Shanghai conductor who spent a year in the United States under the Center’s auspices (sponsored by a grant from the Asian Cultural Council), has made history in China during the past year. As the youngest director of the Shanghai Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Chen has brought national and international attention to that musical body by presenting all nine Beethoven symphonies in one season. Chen’s rewards were not only the enthusiasm of the sell-out crowds, but also an award of recognition from the Ministry of Culture for bringing Western symphonic music to the attention of Chinese audiences. One of Chen Xieyang’s hopes for the future is to bring the Shanghai Symphony to the United States in a year or two. If anyone can accomplish this, it is most certainly Chen Xieyang.

As our readers can see, the list of Center supporters who have been honored in the world of arts and letters this past year-and-a-half is a long one. We suspect that it is—in actuality—quite a bit longer, but the more programs the Center undertakes, the harder it is to keep track of the accomplishments of all those with whom we have worked. We apologize for the stories we have missed, but would be happy to make amends if you will send us clippings and announcements for future newsletters.

Finally, our list of accolades would be incomplete if we neglected the honors that have come to the Center’s director, Professor Chou Wen-chung. Professor Chou’s lifetime commitments to musical composition and to the teaching of music in the University setting have been recognized and tapped. In December 1984, Professor Chou was named the first Fritz Reiner Professor of Musical Composition and head of the newly established Fritz Reiner Center for Contemporary Music at Columbia University. The Fritz Reiner Center was founded to further the study and dissemination of contemporary music, including the sponsorship of conferences, lectures, concerts, publications, and recordings. The archive for contemporary music, housed at Columbia, serves as a repository for letters and photos sent to the late Fritz Reiner from many composers who were his friends.

On October 30, 1985, the China Institute in America honored Chou Wen-chung with its Qingyun Award. “The Qingyun Award is presented annually to honor individuals whose extraordinary achievements in their chosen fields illuminate the meaning of U.S.-China friendship and understanding.” These substantial rewards and responsibilities only add to both the time and energy demands already put on the Center director. We expect the additional demands to take their toll, but confess ongoing pride in his continuing list of accomplishments as a member of the international community of artists.

Purpose and Organization

The Center for United States-China Arts Exchange is a not-for-profit national organization affiliated with the School of the Arts at Columbia University. The Center’s goal is threefold: to facilitate exchanges between the United States and China of individuals and materials in the arts, to stimulate public awareness of the arts in both countries, and to foster collaborative projects among American and Chinese artists.

Established on October 1,1978, with support grants from the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and a research grant from the Henry Luce Foundation, the Center receives contributions of office space and university services from Columbia. The Center is not a funding organization; it relies on contributions of money materials, and services from foundations, corporations, and individuals to carry out its programs.

The Board of Managers and the Advisory Council, both created in the spring of 1981, oversee the Center’s programs and policies. A Development Committee, comprising two members of the Board of Managers and six members of the Advisory Council, advises and assists the Center in fundraising.

Board of Managers
  • Michael I. Sovern, Honorary Chairman
  • Robert F. Goldberger
  • Schuyler G. Chapin*
  • Chou Wen-chung*
Advisory Council
  • Leonard Bernstein
  • John Bresnan
  • Ana R. Daniel
  • William A. Delano
  • Joan W. Harris
  • Esther Hewlett
  • Geraldine Kunstadter
  • Ming Cho Lee
  • Cho-Liang Lin
  • Porter McKeever *
  • Arthur Miller
  • Waldemar A. Nielsen*
  • Robert B. Oxnam
  • I. M. Pei
  • Russell A. Phillips, Jr.*
  • Joseph W. Polisi
  • Arthur H. Rosen
  • Norman Ross*
  • Henry P. Sailer
  • Harrison E. Salisbury
  • Walter Scheuer
  • Martin E. Segal
  • Joseph E. Slater
  • Isaac Stem
  • Audrey Topping
  • Theodore H. White
  • Herman Wouk
  • •Member Development Committee
Officers and Staff
  • Chou Wen-chung, Director
  • Susan L. Rhodes, Assistant Director
  • David Graifman, Financial Assistant, 1984-1985
  • Ken Hao, Program Assistant
  • Margot E. Landman, Program Assistant
  • Sarah R. Sills, Administrative Assistant
  • Phillip Reynolds, Intern
Graduate Research Assistants
  • Greg Hendren (1984-1985)
  • Mary Lane (1985-1986)
Office Assistants

Wai Ng (1983-1985), Herbert Li (Summer 1985), Karin Higa (1985-1986), Monique Holt (1986)


The Center is grateful to the following organizations and individuals for general support, program grants, and contributions received in 1984-1985:


  • Asian Cultural Council
  • Roberta Pew-Bandy/Astral Foundation
  • Atlantic Richfield Foundation
  • Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People’s Republic of China
  • The Ford Foundation
  • Goldsmith-Perry Philanthropies, Inc.
  • Mary Livingston Griggs and Mary Griggs Burke Foundation
  • Albert Kunstadter Family Foundation
  • The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc.
  • The New York Times Company Foundation, Inc.
  • Rockefeller Brothers Fund
  • The Starr Foundation/American International Group
  • United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia
  • Lila Acheson Wallace


  • Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Chan
  • Y. L. Chang
  • Yi-an Chang
  • Dr. & Mrs. Thomas D. Cherubini
  • Dr. & Mrs. Jerome A. Cohen
  • Elmer Craig
  • Mr. & Mrs. D. Ronald Daniel
  • Mr. & Mrs. William A. Delano
  • Mr. & Mrs. Osborn Elliott
  • Mr. & Mrs. Jay Furman
  • Jean Heller
  • Evelyn Hinrichsen
  • Ta Chun Hsu
  • Dr. Robert Hsüeh
  • Mr. & Mrs. Harry Kahn
  • Mr. & Mrs. John Kunstadter
  • Mr, & Mrs. Robert A. Levinson
  • Francis Luk/Pacific Delight Tours, Inc.
  • Mr. & Mrs. Porter McKeever
  • Douglas P. Murray & Peggy Blumenthal
  • Waldemar A. Nielsen
  • Mr. & Mrs. George D. O’Neill
  • Ann S. Phillips
  • Russell A. Phillips, Jr.
  • Mr. & Mrs. Arthur H. Rosen
  • Mr. & Mrs. Hyman Rosenson
  • Norman A. Ross
  • Henry P. Sailer
  • Mr. & Mrs. Martin E. Segal
  • Harold Shaw
  • Dr. & Mrs. William Shaw
  • Mr. & Mrs. Fred Stein
  • Akiko Takizawa/Galleria Associates International, Inc.
  • Mr. & Mrs. Hamberg Tang
  • Mr. & Mrs. Seymour Topping
  • Martha Redfield Wallace
  • Abe Wouk Foundation, Inc.
  • May Wu
  • Princess Yangchen of Sikkim & Mr. Simon N. Abrahams

The Center thanks the following organizations and individuals for contributions of materials, services, and hospitality that enriched its programs in 1984-1985:

  • Addison-Wesley
  • American Theatre Association
  • Amfac Hotel
  • Richard Andrews
  • The Architects Collaborative, Inc.
  • Architectural Digest
  • Architectural Record
  • Architecture
  • Arena Stage
  • Mayor Boyd Arthur, Jr., Germantown, TN
  • Art Institute of Chicago
  • Artworks Foundry
  • The Asia Society
  • Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture
  • Association of Student Chapters/American
  • Institute of Architects
  • Bill Barrett
  • Leslee Becker
  • Bernard Beckerman (Deceased in 1985)
  • Sidney Bestoff
  • Richard and Gail Bohr
  • Bolinas-Stinson School
  • Bolinas-Stinson Union School District
  • Boston Children’s Museum
  • Boston College Library
  • Boston Globe
  • Boston Public Library
  • Breck School
  • Brooklyn College Theatre Research Data Center
  • John Burgee Architects with Philip Johnson
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • Architecture Department
  • Department of Music
  • University of California, Los Angeles
  • Graduate School of Architecture & Urban Planning
  • Georgio Cavaglieri
  • Center for International Visitors, Boston
  • Center for Southern Folklore
  • Hoi Csiu Andy Chan
  • Chen Yifei
  • Chicago Artists’ Coalition
  • Chicago Office of Fine Arts
  • The Children’s Theater Company and School
  • Marilyn Chin
  • Mel Chin
  • China Books and Periodicals
  • Chinese Music Ensemble of New York
  • University of Cincinnati, College-Conservatory of Music
  • Emery Clark and Ralph Whalen
  • Columbia College, Chicago
  • Columbia University
  • Department of Art History and Archaeology
  • Department of English and Comparative Literature
  • Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation
  • School of the Arts
  • Teachers College
  • Consulates-General of the People’s Republic of China, New York, and San Francisco
  • Continental Illinois National Bank & Trust Company, Chicago
  • Cooper-Hewitt Museum
  • Orlin and Shirley Corey
  • Daniel Curtis
  • Carol Kreeger Davidson
  • Davis Brody & Associates
  • Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of International Affairs
  • W. Simone Di Piero
  • E. L. Doctorow
  • Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Dowden
  • The Ecco Press
  • Embassy of the People’s Republic of China
  • Lawrence Fane
  • Fel-Pro Inc.
  • Fillmore Arts Center
  • Fogg Art Museum
  • The Folger Library
  • Friends of New Orleans Center for Creative Arts
  • David M. Furchgott
  • Howard Gardner and Ellen Winner
  • Jim and Carolyn Gates
  • General Services Administration, Art-in-Architecture Program
  • Georgetown University, Nauinger Memorial Library
  • Germantown Elementary School
  • Germantown High School
  • Germantown Municipal Center
  • Giovacchini Family
  • Lloyd Glasson
  • David Godine Publishers
  • Governor’s Task Force for Minnesota High School for the Arts
  • Francine du Plessix Gray
  • Richard Green
  • The Guthrie Theater
  • The Harmony Film Group
  • Harvard University
  • Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts
  • Department of Music
  • Graduate School of Design
  • Graduate School of Education
  • Office for the Arts
  • Carolyn Heilbrun
  • Hirshhom Museum and Sculpture Garden
  • Judith Hombacher
  • Norris Houghton
  • House of Hope Presbyterian Church
  • University of Houston, College of Architecture
  • Parker Huang
  • John R. Humphreys
  • Richard Hunt
  • Illinois Institute of Technology, College of Architecture, Planning & Design
  • International Sculpture Center
  • International Theatre Institute
  • Bob Johnson and Peggy Pate
  • The Juilliard School
  • Robert A. Kapp
  • K & B Pharmaceuticals
  • Joan Kennedy
  • John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
  • John F. Kennedy Library
  • Cheryl Kent and Patrick Whitney
  • King County Arts Commission
  • Galway Kinnell
  • Kenneth Koch
  • Karl Kroeber
  • Jack W. Kukuk
  • Geraldine and John Kunstadter
  • Fiorello H. La Guardia High School of Music and the Arts
  • La Mama Experimental Theater Club
  • Ray and Carol Larson
  • Lee Yok-shiu
  • John L’Heureux
  • Library of Congress
  • Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
  • Louisiana Landmarks Society
  • Lyra Music Publishing Co. (Center extends sincere apologies for inadvertent omission from the Summer 1984 Newsletter.)
  • Bernard Malamud (Deceased in 1986)
  • Mamaroneck High School
  • Dan Markey
  • University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Department of Music
  • Massachusetts College of Art
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Council for the Arts
  • Department of Urban Studies & Planning
  • Laboratory of Architecture & Planning
  • McDonogh 15
  • Martin Meisel
  • Memphis State University
  • College of Arts and Sciences
  • College of Communication and Fine Arts
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • Midwest China Center
  • Richard McDermott Miller
  • Milton Academy
  • Minneapolis College of Art & Design
  • Minneapolis Institute of Arts
  • Minneapolis Public Schools
  • Anwatin Junior High School
  • Fulton Elementary School
  • Loring School
  • North High School
  • South High School
  • Minnesota Opera Company
  • Mission to the United Nations of the People’s Republic of China
  • James B. Mitchell, Jr.
  • Model Secondary School for the Deaf, Gallaudet College
  • Mayor William Morris, Shelby County, TN
  • Peggy Mueller
  • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  • The Museum of Modem Art
  • Music Educators National Conference
  • National Air and Space Museum
  • National Artists’ Equity Association
  • National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped
  • National Council for the Social Studies
  • National Dance Association
  • National Endowment for the Arts
  • Artists in Schools Program
  • Visual Arts Program
  • National Theatre of the Deaf
  • New England Conservatory
  • New Orleans Center for Creative Arts
  • New York Public Library
  • The New York Shakespeare Festival
  • Nordhammer Art Foundry
  • Eugene O’Neill Theater Center
  • Mr. and Mrs. George D. O’Neill
  • Olsen/Walker Architecture
  • Opera America
  • Bruce and Cody Oreck
  • Benito Ortolani
  • Pacific Delight Tours, Inc.
  • Pantheon Books, Inc.
  • Partisan Review
  • Jerry Peart
  • I.M. Pei & Partners
  • PEN American Center
  • PEN South
  • Percent for Art Program
  • Philip Morris Asia, Inc.
  • Jayne Anne Phillips
  • Albert K. Pounian
  • Pratt Institute, School of Architecture
  • Prentice & Chan, Ohlhausen
  • Public Art Fund
  • Public Theater
  • Martin Puryear
  • Peter Reginato
  • Rice University, School of Architecture
  • Mr. and Mrs. David Rockefeller, Jr.
  • Norman Ross
  • Paul Rudolph, PC.
  • Henry Sailer
  • Orville Schell
  • Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Schnier
  • Sculptors Guild, Inc.
  • Seattle Art Museum
  • Seattle Arts Commission
  • Seattle Center
  • Martin E. Segal
  • Richard Serra
  • Dr. and Mrs. William Shaw
  • Shelby County (TN) Schools
  • Shepley Bulfinch Richardson & Abbott
  • Susan Shreve
  • The Shubert Organization
  • Shubert Theater
  • Sidwell Friends School
  • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
  • The Society for Asian Music
  • David Speer
  • George Stade
  • Stanford University
  • Creative Writing Center
  • English Department
  • Barrie Stavis
  • Howard Stein
  • Ted Stelten
  • James Sterne
  • Summit Hotel
  • Sun Oak
  • Sam Tam
  • Lee and Lynn Taylor
  • Robert Towers
  • Mr. and Mrs. Tsai Wenying
  • Tulane University
  • Marilyn Turkovich
  • United States-China Peoples Friendship Association
  • Seattle Chapter
  • Washington, D.C., Chapter
  • Urban Education Program, Associated Colleges of the Midwest
  • Vintage Travel, Inc.
  • The Virlane Foundation
  • WKCR, New York
  • WNCN, New York
  • Walker Art Center
  • Mr. and Mrs. George Walters
  • Washington State China Relations Council
  • The Wayside Inn, Sudbury, MA
  • Wesleyan University, Department of Music
  • Whitney Museum of American Art
  • The Writers Room
  • Yale University
  • School of Architecture
  • School of Music
  • Young Men and Young Women’s Hebrew Associations

The Center is indebted to the following individuals for special assistance during the past year:

  • Jenny Beck
  • Chen Yifei
  • Yi-an Chou
  • Edward Corn
  • Klaus Herdeg
  • C. T. Hu
  • Lonna B. Jones
  • Robert K. Kaplan
  • Judith L. Leynse
  • James Kraft
  • Harold D. Laster
  • John S. Major
  • Joe Pineiro
  • Robert Stone
  • Anthony T. Vacchione, Jr.
  • Michelle Vosper
  • George C. White
  • Charles Wu

  • Editors: Susan L. Rhodes and Jennifer Barber
  • Assistant Editor: Margot E. Landman
  • The Center for US-China Arts Exchange
  • Columbia University

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